When we charge a battery with a solar panel we have to consider both voltage and amperes. You should consider the compatibility between the battery and the solar panel. You need to select a solar panel voltage according to the battery voltage. Always the voltage of the solar panel should be equal to the voltage of the battery.
For example: if you use a 12v battery as a solar battery then you have to select a 12v solar panel.
The amperes of the solar panels decide how fast solar panels will be able to charge the battery. When we are buying a solar panel we should mainly focus on the voltage and the Watt power of the solar panel. The solar panel amperes depend on the Watt value. So we can calculate the amperes of the solar panel by Watt.
WATT = VOLTS*AMPERS
Note– When you choose a solar panel to charge a battery you should mainly focus on the volts of the solar panel because if the voltage of the solar panel and the voltage of the battery is not equal, you cannot connect the solar panel and the battery. The Watt value of the solar panel only affects the time it will take to charge the battery.
How to charge a battery using a solar panel?
Using solar power energy you can generate electricity for your house without a monthly current bill. Also, you can store that energy in batteries for after use. Using a solar to panel charge a battery is a very simple task. To make this circuit you need a few items only. You do not need a technician to make this system you can do it by yourself.
First, connect the solar panel to the battery by wires through the charge controller. When you connect the wires make sure to connect the positive terminals to the positive terminals and the negative terminals to the negative terminals.
Why do you need to use a charge controller?
By using the charge controller you can protect your batteries from overcharging. Also, the charge controller continues the cycle of charge on/off. Even if you use the best solar panel you have to use a charge controller to protect your battery. because the solar panel generates a higher voltage than it’s labeled.
For example: if you are using a 12v solar panel to charge the 12v battery the solar panel normally generates around 14v to 18v.Therefore you have to use a charge controller to regulate the voltage otherwise your battery will damage instantly.
What is the best battery for the solar system?
When you install a battery to your solar power system it is a great investment. Because by installing a battery you can store excess energy generated by this system. but you have to select the best batteries for your solar system. Because when you are buying batteries for your solar system you have to spend a fair amount of money to buy the batteries.
There are 3 main battery types in the market that we can use for the solar system.
- Flooded Lead-Acid battery
- Sealed Lead-Acid battery
- Lithium battery
Flooded Lead Acid Battery
For a long time, the flooded lead-acid battery is using for the solar off-grid system. If you use this battery for your solar system you have to check this battery regularly. Because this battery is filled with battery acid and you have to refill it from time to time.
Sealed Lead-Acid Battery
The sealed lead-acid battery does not require any maintenance. And it’s relatively inexpensive. Now sealed lead-acid batteries are widely used for a solar off-grid system. But battery lifespan is relatively short.
Lithium batteries are the best batteries for a solar system. Because it has a large capacity, long lifespan, and doesn’t require any maintenance. But this battery is relatively expensive than other batteries. Even though this battery is expensive people using this battery because of its long-life and efficient use.
Can you use a couple of solar panels for this system?
Yes, you can combine solar panels to charge a battery. But you have to combine the same voltage solar panels. otherwise, this circuit will not be working well.
For example: if you want to charge a 12v battery then you can combine 3 solar panels of 4 volts.
You can combine solar panels in two ways.
Each way has a different result. Combining solar panels in a parallel way you can increase amperes. And combining solar panels in a series way you can increase voltage.
In this case, we have to combine low-voltage solar panels to get a higher voltage. Therefore we need to combine solar panels in a series.
For example: if you combine 3 solar panels of 4 volts the total output voltage is 12 volts.
How to series solar panels
Can you use a couple of batteries for the solar system?
Yes, you can.
The answer is the same as above, you have to use batteries with the same voltage.
Example: If you use a 12v solar panel to charge the batteries then you have to use 3 batteries of 4 volts.
There are two ways you can combine the batteries.
In this case, you need to combine batteries in series. Because if you use a parallel way to combine solar panels, the voltage does not increase. To increase voltage you have to combine solar panels in a series way.
How to series Batteries
Do you have to maintain this system?
You can use this system for a long time without any maintenance. Solar panels normally require very little maintenance. The only thing you need to do is remove the leaves and debris that fall on top of the solar panel.
You also have to remove the snow that falls on your panel in the winter. Otherwise, your solar panel will not work at maximum efficiency. When you install solar panels make sure to buy solar panels from a good solar company. Normally a good solar company provides you about 15 years to 25 years warranty.
Also, if you use a good battery for your system you can use this system for a long time without any battery replacement. If you use lithium batteries for your system you can use those batteries for about 5 to 6 years.